Archive for January, 2014

467 Postblog XX: Monday 31 January – Friday 4 February, 1944

January had been a tough month. Though the Waddington Squadrons operated on only nine nights, they had lost, between them, sixteen crews – with five of those going missing on the second last night of the month. Berlin had been targeted no less than six times and, overall, Bomber Command had lost 5.5% of sorties it had despatched.[1]

It was with some relief, then, that February got off to a very quiet start. Crews were stood down on Monday afternoon following Raid Assessment lectures. On Tuesday ‘A’ Flight 467 Squadron held a “conference on the recent losses of ‘A’ Flight crews. Intensive training was stressed and it is hoped that all crews will now become ‘gen’ crews and so cut down those losses.”[2] As the relatively new Officer Commanding ‘A’ Flight, this conference was perhaps Phil Smith’s way of stamping his quiet authority on the men. On the same day Waddington held Station Defence Exercises and on Thursday there was a visiting American officer who gave a lecture to both squadrons about his home country and countrymen.

Wing Commander Sam Balmer – the 467 Squadron Commanding Officer – was required in London for a medical board from Wednesday, 2 February, and Phil Smith took temporary command of the Squadron. Phil remembered just one additional duty arising from this – interviewing an applicant for a commission. It was “quite a difficulty for the untrained and unprepared.”[3] The results of this interview are not recorded. On the same day, however, Jack Purcell returned from the Station Sick Quarters.[4]

As always, Bomber Command didn’t rest completely. Mosquitos attacked Berlin (again!), Aachen and Krefeld and carried out Serrate anti-nightfighter patrols on Tuesday. On Wednesday the Mosquitos attacked Elberfeld and Rheinhausen, on Thursday they went to Dortmund, Krefeld and Cologne, and on Friday to Frankfurt, Elberfeld and Aachen. Various other aircraft laid mines in Kiel Harbour on Wednesday, off the French Channel and Atlantic ports on Thursday and in the Bay of Biscay on Friday (4 February).[5]

The Luftwaffe launched a raid on London and south-east England on 3 February. 95 made it to the coast, seventeen reached London and fourteen did not return. Mosquito nightfighters accounted for at least four of the victims.[6]

 

Next post in this series: 5 February

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] Wakelam 2009, p.214

[2] 467 Squadron ORB, 01FEB44

[3] Smith, Phil; Recollections of 1939-1945 War, p.19

[4] NAA: A10605, 1047/1

[5] Details of operations carried out in Night Raid Reports Nos. 519-522

[6] Bowman, Martin W (2003) p.131

467 Postblog XIX: Sunday 30 January, 1944

There was little respite for the crews of Bomber Command, with yet another trip to Berlin laid on for tonight. As Flight Commander, Phil Smith did not go on quite so many operations as a ‘normal’ squadron pilot might, and his navigator was still sick, so he and his crew sat this one out again. Phil was however able to write a letter home. Leave was due in a week or so and he intended to spend it with his Uncle Harold. He also said he would try to get a current photograph of himself made, and perhaps even procure a film from somewhere to take some snaps of his new crew: “I have an English engineer – bomb aimer and gunner – and Australian navigator wireless operator and gunner. They are quite a good crowd all keen and hard working types.”[1]

Fourteen aircraft left for Berlin from 463 Squadron, but just ten from 467. Take off began just before 5pm. There was one early return, with 463’s Pilot Officer Charles Schonberg returning in ME614 with an overheating cabin and a sick navigator a couple of minutes before 9pm.

Flying Officer Dave Gibbs and crew (in DV277) just before take-off on 30 January 1944. It will be their seventh raid on Berlin. From the Waddington Collection, RAF Waddington Heritage Centre

Flying Officer Dave Gibbs and crew (in DV277) just before take-off on 30 January 1944. It will be their seventh raid on Berlin. From the Waddington Collection, RAF Waddington Heritage Centre

The rest of the Squadrons (part of a larger force of some 540 aircraft on the target) once again found Berlin covered in thick cloud, necessitating a skymarking attack that was later described as “concentrated”. The Night Raid Report for this night includes reports heard on German radio that “extensive areas” of the city had been hit, with “heavy damage caused to cultural monuments etc”.[2] Meanwhile, smaller forces of Mosquitoes attacked Elberfeld and Brunswick, along with some radio counter-measure sorties, Serrate anti-nightfighter patrols and minelaying in the River Gironde.

The nightfighters, it seems, caught up to the main bomber stream quite late in the piece, but once in it they didn’t lose it again and many combats were witnessed. A nightfighter was engaged and destroyed by 467 Squadron’s Flight Sergeants Henry Thompson[3] and Col Campbell, in Pilot Officer Bruce Simpson’s crew, on their way out of the target.[4] The aircraft was seen crossing underneath them and the gunners called for a corkscrew. They “brought all [their] guns to bear on the [aircraft]. Hits were observed and it was seen to turn its back and disappear.” It was not over for this crew however. Later one engine required feathering, and they came home on three.

One aircraft of 467 Squadron failed to return, probably DV378,[5] with Flying Officer Alex Riley and crew aboard. It was hit by flak and crashed near the target area. The only survivor was the Canadian bomb aimer, Warrant Officer J Valastin who became a POW.[6]

It was far worse for 463 Squadron, however. They lost no less than four crews, led by Pilot Officers Lindsay Fairclough, Peter Hanson, George Messenger and Doug Dunn. There appear to be some errors in the Operational Record Book concerning which aircraft they were flying when all four crews disappeared without trace, but they were most likely HK537,[7] JA973, ED772 and ED949.[8]

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] Smith, Phil 1944: Letter to his Father, 30JAN44

[2] Night Raid Report No. 518

[3] Thompson’s first name from The National Archives: AIR78 (thanks Graham Wallace)

[4] Account of this – from which the subsequent quote is taken – is in 467 Squadron ORB, 30JAN44. The type of nightfighter is unknown – in one section the ORB states a FW190 but in the other it states ME110.

[5] Recorded in the Operational Record Book as DV372 but in Blundell, 1975, Robertson, 1964 and Storr, 2006 as DV378. Robertson records DV372 as surviving the war to be scrapped in October 1945.

[6] Storr, Alan 2006

[7] Recorded in ORB as ED545, but Robertson, 1964 has that aircraft lost on 14MAY43. HK537, in the same source, is shown as being missing on 31JAN44 – there were no major raids on that night (no NRR), and the 30JAN44 trip returned near to or just after midnight so it is reasonable to take this as being the same raid.

[8] ORB and Blundell, 1975 agree on the latter three serial numbers, though Blundell wrote his entry under the wrong date (29JAN44) and misattributes ED772 as a 467 Squadron aircraft when Robertson shows it was actually with 463 Squadron.

467 Postblog XVIII: Saturday 29 January, 1944

It was just after midnight last night that the Lancasters of 463 and 467 Squadron roared into the air, en route once more for the German capital, Berlin. There were three early returns. Pilot Officer Thomas Foster, in DV229, encountered icing that he couldn’t climb above, landing back at base just after 03.30 hours. Pilot Officer Lindsay Fairclough, in ED545, had the same problem, returning some two hours later. And an embarrassing navigational error saw Pilot Officer John McManus boomerang early in JA901, when he misinterpreted a new course passed to him by the navigator and inadvertently flew its reciprocal instead. By the time the error was realised, they had lost about half an hour and did not relish the prospect of having all of Berlin’s defences to themselves after the rest of the force had left the target area, so they set course for home, arriving a quarter of an hour before Fairclough.[1]

The outbound route took the bombers out over Denmark, before they turned south east towards the target. Defences were fairly active, with six bombers shot down by flak on the outbound route and at least twelve by nightfighters before the target was reached.[2]

Once again Berlin was covered in broken cloud, and though some groundmarking was possible the attack eventually required the less accurate ‘Wanganui’ skymarking technique. Despite this, most crews thought that this appeared to be one of the best attacks on Berlin yet. Phil Smith reported “three distinct areas of fire glow on clouds; good fires must have been below.”[3] The defences, he wrote in his logbook, “seemed weak”. His impression was later confirmed when it was determined that flak probably destroyed only one aircraft over the target itself. There was a moderate barrage of heavy flak and some intense light flak near the marker flares, but the searchlights were much hampered by the heavy cloud cover.

Fighters were however very active. Over the target at least 150 were sighted – including one which followed DV372, with Gil Pate and Eric Hill keeping a very close eye on it from their turrets until it sidled off into the darkness once more.[4] “Altho’ the place was lit up by the fires like the worlds fair”, wrote Dale Johnston,[5] “we never saw another kite. Bar a Jerry, but we gave him the slip and he disappeared in the clouds.” Some 27 combats were reported over Berlin and six more heavies were shot down there.

In all, 43 aircraft were reported missing, or some 6.3% of the attacking force. Seven were known to have been lost to flak and 21 to fighters. The rest, thought the scientists of Bomber Command’s Operational Research Service, were “almost certainly due to fighters”.[6]

Despite Phil’s later recollection of this as a “straightforward”[7] trip, it was not entirely without trouble. After dropping their load of 4000lb high explosives and 5000lb incendiaries towards the end of the attack at 03.30hrs (only one of Waddington’s aircraft bombed after them, at 03.32), they were on the homeward journey when Gilbert Pate’s oxygen failed in the rear turret. Wireless operator Dale Johnston went back to give some help, but his portable oxygen also failed. When flight engineer Ken Tabor went to help and suffered the same fate, Phil needed to descend to about 15,000 feet to bring everyone around again.[8] They eventually arrived back at Waddington  at 08.30 on the morning of the 29th – the third last aircraft to return.

Sadly each Waddington squadron lost a crew on this operation. Flight Lieutenant Norm Cooper, flying HK537, and Ivan Durston, in ED867, both disappeared without message or signal being received. Post-war it was discovered that Cooper’s aircraft had collided with an 83 Squadron bomber, crashing on the Danish island of Als. All on board died. Durston, who had been the last to depart Waddington last night and was “one of our most popular pilots and an excellent crew,”[9] had been on his 27th trip. It’s not known where his aircraft crashed but all seven members of the crew are buried in the Berlin 1939-1945 War Cemetery.[10]

Because of the very late return this morning from the Berlin operation, there was much sleeping during the day and the squadrons were stood down for the afternoon. There was “the usual Saturday night dance” but very little else happened.

Elsewhere, Bomber Command sent small forces of Mosquitos to attack a steelworks on Duisburg and a flying bomb site at Herbouville in France tonight, and a small group of Whitleys dropped leaflets over Northern France.[11] A force of enemy aircraft was seen on radar heading towards the English coast during the night. Bombs were dropped across Hampshire, the Thames Estuary and Suffolk. It’s thought that one of the raiders was shot down by a Beaufighter of 68 Squadron.[12]

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] Details on arrival times from 463 and 467 Squadron ORBs, 28JAN44

[2] Route details and losses are detailed in Night Raid Report No. 516

[3] 467 Squadron ORB, 28JAN44

[4] This fighter is mentioned in Smith, Phil 1940-1945, Flying Logbook

[5] Johnston, Fannie, Letter to Don Smith 24AUG44 – transcribes part of one of Dale’s letters.

[6] Night Raid Report No. 516

[7] Smith, Phil, Phil’s Recollections of 1939-1945 War, p.20

[8] Incident described in a letter Dale Johnston wrote to his brother Ian, 20APR44. Transcript (probably by Don Smith) in Mollie Smith’s collection.

[9] 467 Squadron ORB 28JAN44

[10] Storr, Alan 2006

[11] Night Raid Report No. 517

[12] Bowman, Martin W., p.129

467 Postblog XVII: Friday 28 January, 1944

For the first time since joining 467 Squadron, Phil Smith’s name was on the Battle Order tonight as captain of his own aircraft. The target – as if anyone expected anything different – was, once again, Berlin, now being attacked for the thirteenth time this winter. Two members of Phil’s normal crew did not take part in this raid. Navigator Jack Purcell, who was still off sick, and bomb aimer Jerry Parker were replaced by Flight Sergeants Leonard Connolly and F.G. Craven respectively.[1] In any case, twelve aircraft were detailed from 463 Squadron, and fourteen from 467. They joined a total of 679 heavies and four Mosquitos sent to the German capital.

In an effort to support the force attacking Berlin, Bomber Command also sent a mining force to Kiel Harbour and several Mosquitos to harass Hannover and to bomb Berlin a full four hours before the main attack was due.[2] On the other side, sixteen Messerschmitt Me410s and ten Focke-Wulf Fw190s made a small incursion into East Anglia, Kent and Sussex. A Mosquito nightfighter accounted for one of the raiders but a defending fighter was also shot down.[3]

At Waddington, take off was scheduled for midnight. The first Lancaster – ED949 of 463 Squadron, under the command of Flying Officer Doug Dunn – roared down the runway at two minutes past the hour, and most were away by 00.36. Flight Lieutenant Ivan Durston was somewhat delayed, departing in ED867 thirteen minutes after the previous aircraft, and Pilot Officer Noel McDonald encountered engine trouble on the takeoff roll and aborted the mission on the runway. Phil Smith and his crew, meanwhile, were in Lancaster DV372, the nineteenth aircraft to depart. They left the ground at 00.28, climbed away and set course eastwards.[4]

 

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] Smith, Phil 1940-1945; Flying Logbook. Craven was RAF and as such does not appear on the Australian Nominal Roll so his name is unknown at this time

[2] Night Raid Report No. 516

[3] Bowman, Martin W., p.128

[4] Details of departure order from 463 and 467 Squadron ORBs, 28JAN44

467 Postblog XVI: Thursday 27 January, 1944

A week after the last big raid on the city, Berlin was once again the target for operations for tonight. This would be the twelfth major operation against the German capital since the so-called Battle of Berlin began in November last year. Each squadron at Waddington briefed sixteen crews. Once again Phil Smith’s was not one of them. Though Jack Purcell was still in the Station Sick Quarters it is unknown why the others did not go either. Flight Lieutenant Ivan Durston began the mass take-off at 17.18 hours. All were away a little over 40 minutes later – with an average of less than a minute and a half between each heavily-laden aircraft. One aircraft was “unable to take off,” possibly due to an engine failure on the runway, and there was one early return – Pilot Officer Bruce Simpson in ED657, who ‘boomeranged’ due to compass trouble three and a bit hours after take-off. [1]

In all Bomber Command sent 530 aircraft on this trip to Berlin. In a good example of how the entire Command was coordinated to support the main force, significant diversionary and harassing operations were carried out across a wide front. Halifaxes laid mines in the Heligoland Bight and Wellingtons and Stirlings did the same off the Dutch coast (one Stirling was lost); Mosquitos dropped imitation fighter flares well away from the bombers’ route to and from the target and other aircraft flew radio counter-measure and intruder sorties targeting nightfighters. Though the fighters did intercept the bomber stream early, it appears that the spoof operations had the desired effect and “half the German fighters were lured north by the Heligoland mining diversion”.[2] Consequently fewer fighters attacked the bombers enroute to the target than usual. Even so, fighters were known to have claimed at least seventeen of the 32 aircraft that were lost on this trip.

The Main Force arrived over Berlin to find it once more blanketed in thick cloud, necessitating the use of less-accurate skymarkers. Crews reported a fair concentration of markers from the Pathfinders but there was no way to determine whether the markers themselves where anywhere near the target, so actual results of this raid remain uncertain.

The first successful aircraft arrived back at Waddington just after 01.30 in the morning. The last crew back, at 02.48, was that of Squadron Leader Bill Brill of 463 Squadron in DV274. They had been struck by incendiaries falling from higher-flying aircraft over the target and were close to baling out until Brill regained control and they set course for the long and uncomfortable trip home.

When word was received that two aircraft had landed away (Flight Lieutenant Geoff Baker in ED545 landed at a Coastal Command base at Thorney Island, near the Isle of Wight, and Pilot Officer John McManus diverted to Coleby Grange in JA901), there were still three aircraft outstanding from Waddington. Flying Officer Alan Leslie in ME563 from 463 Squadron crashed near Teltow, 16km south west of the centre of Berlin. 467 Squadron’s Pilot Officer Cec O’Brien, in ED539, crashed in the Berlin suburb of Kopenwick, 8km south east of the city. And Pilot Officer Stephen Grugeon (who had flown Phil Smith and crew to Little Snoring a few days ago) crashed east-north-east of Kassel in Germany.[3] All members of the three crews were killed.

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] 463 and 467 Squadron ORBs, 27JAN44

[2] Details of all operations from Night Raid Report No. 515. Further details and quote from RAF Bomber Command 60th Anniversary Campaign Diary, January 1944

[3] Storr, Alan 2006

467 Postblog XV: Saturday 22 – Wednesday 26 January, 1944

While the weather did improve slightly from the snow and rain of the previous week or so, following the Berlin and Magdeburg trips last Friday there would be no operations scheduled for the crews at Waddington until next Tuesday.[1] On Saturday the Squadrons were stood down in the afternoon and many would have taken the opportunity to go across the road to the Horse and Jockey, a pub in Waddington village, for a few pints. Jack Purcell was not among them. He had taken ill and was admitted to the Station Sick Quarters this morning.[2]

The Horse and Jockey in Waddington, as it appeared in 2009

The Horse and Jockey in Waddington, as it appeared in 2009

There was some training carried out during this period, with crews attending lectures about Flying Control and Flight Engineering. Some got some Fighter Affiliation flights in on Sunday. This was a common training exercise whereby it was arranged with Fighter Command to rendezvous with a fighter at a given place and height. Once visual contact had been made, the fighter would begin a series of mock attacks on the bomber, and the gunners would simulate shooting at it with camera guns while the pilot tried to manoeuvre the Lancaster away from the fighter. Occasionally fighter affiliation was even carried out at night, when instead of the camera guns the fighter would flash its navigation lights if he got within shooting range of the bomber without being spotted by the gunners.[3]

An unknown 467 Squadron crew carries out some daylight fighter affiliation with a Spitfre. A remarkable photograph from the Waddington Collection, RAF Waddington Heritage Centre

An unknown 467 Squadron crew carries out some daylight fighter affiliation with a Spitfre. A remarkable photograph from the Waddington Collection, RAF Waddington Heritage Centre

Operations, finally, were notified for Tuesday, 25 January. The two Waddington squadrons briefed their crews and fuelled up their aircraft. Phil Smith carried out two air tests in preparation, one of 25 minutes in DV240 and a second of ten minutes in an unknown Lancaster,[4] but at 16.45hrs, when all were set to go, the operation was scrubbed.[5] It’s unknown who was intended to replace Jack Purcell, who was still in the Station Sick Quarters, for this trip.

A small force of Stirlings, Lancasters and Mosquitos did attack military constructions (probably flying bomb sites) in the Pas de Calais and on the Cherbourg peninsula, but the Waddington aircraft were not with them. Bomber Command also sent Mosquitos to Aachen again and carried out a weather reconnaissance flight, and once again training groups sent Wellingtons to drop leaflets over Northern France.[6]

The only other Bomber Command operations during this time were carried out on Sunday night (23 January).[7] 37 Mosquitos were sent to a range of mainly industrial targets in the Ruhr (including Dusseldorf, Derendorf, Koblenz and Aachen), eight Stirlings and Wellingtons laid mines off Le Havre, Brest and Cherbourg, and a Mosquito made a weather reconnaissance flight.

Some members of 463 Squadron had a sad duty on Monday, travelling to Lowestoft for the private burial of Sergeant Bertie Turner, the unfortunate mid-upper gunner who died of oxygen failure on the Berlin trip on January 20.[8]

 

Next post in this series: 27 January

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] 463 and 467 Squadron ORBs, 22-25JAN44

[2] NAA: A10605, 1047/1

[3] Dennis Over, a 227 Squadron veteran rear gunner, described fighter affiliation (and mentioned the night procedure) briefly in a post on the Lancaster Archive Forum, 12 September 2008. Also mentioned in Keith Prowd’s interview for the Australians at War Film Archive.

[4] Smith, Phil; Flying Log Book 1940-1945. Interestingly these flights do not appear in Jack Purcell’s logbook. Although Phil wrote “Crew” in his there are no names.

[5] 463 Squadron ORB, 25JAN44

[6] Night Raid Report No. 514

[7] All details from Night Raid Report No. 513

[8] 463 Squadron ORB, 24JAN44. Neither ORB records the intended target for this trip.

467 Postblog XIV: Friday 21 January, 1944

A clear day dawned at RAF Waddington to the news that operations, once more, were on for tonight. Phil Smith and his crew completed a half-hour air test in Lancaster EE143[1] but they again found themselves off the battle order for the evening’s raid.

Fourteen 463 Squadron aircraft were detailed for tonight, with most headed for the night’s main force attack on Magdeburg. Two however went on a diversionary 5 and 8 Group raid to Berlin and one of the Magdeburg force made an early return. 467 Squadron sent thirteen aircraft to Magdeburg and two to Berlin, with take-off commencing at 19.50 hours.[2] Interestingly another crew (captained by Pilot Officer Ross Stanford) took EE143, the aircraft that Phil Smith had air tested earlier in the day.

Elsewhere, Bomber Command also attacked military targets in the Pas de Calais and Cherbourg areas, Mosquitoes bombed targets in the Ruhr. Other aircraft scattered leaflets over France, laid mines off St Nazaire and carried out intruder patrols.

This was the first big raid to Magdeburg, with a total of 648 aircraft despatched. The Pathfinders initially marked the target accurately but decoy markers set by the Germans successfully distracted the Main Force and the raid became scattered. The diversionary raid to Berlin may have contributed to a delay in the defenders identifying the main target, but in any case it appears that German nightfighters had infiltrated the stream before it had even crossed the enemy coast. Consequently it was believed that a large proportion of the 55 aircraft lost fell to the fighters.[3]

One of those missing was ED803, piloted by Pilot Officer Jack Mitchell, of 467 Squadron. It departed Waddington at 20.20 but crashed near Eikendorf, south of Magdeburg. There were no survivors.[4]

ED803, the aircraft lost tonight, is shown with a different crew in this photograph from some time in 1943. The crew depicted was lost on a raid to Milan on 15 August 1943. From the Waddington Collection, RAF Waddington Heritage Centre

ED803, the aircraft lost tonight, is shown with a different crew in this photograph from some time in 1943. The crew depicted was that of Flying Officer John Sullivan, lost on a raid to Milan on 15 August 1943. From the Waddington Collection, RAF Waddington Heritage Centre

Tonight the Germans launched what they called a ‘Steinbock’ (Capricorn) raid on London. Among the attackers were fifteen Heinkel He177s, the first time that aircraft was used on operations. 21 of the raiders failed to return.[5]

This post is part of a series called 467 Postblog, posted in real time to mark the 70th anniversary of the crew of B for Baker while they were on operational service with 467 Squadron at RAF Waddington, Lincolnshire. See this link for an in-depth explanation of the series, and this one for full citations of sources used throughout it. © 2014 Adam Purcell

Sources:


[1] Flight is recorded in both Jack Purcell’s and Phil Smth’s logbooks; intriguingly the 467 Squadron ORB entry for this day states “there was no local flying for today”.

[2] 463 and 467 Squadron ORBs, 21JAN44

[3] Raid details from Night Raid Report No. 512, and RAF Bomber Command Campaign Diary, January 1944

[4] Storr, Alan 2006

[5] Bowman, Martin 2003 p.128